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دانلود کتاب Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences

دانلود کتاب دایره المعارف علوم گوشت

Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences

مشخصات کتاب

Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences

ویرایش: [1, 3 ed.] 
نویسندگان:   
سری:  
ISBN (شابک) : 0323851258, 9780323851251 
ناشر: Academic Press 
سال نشر: 2023 
تعداد صفحات: 2344
[2426] 
زبان: English 
فرمت فایل : PDF (درصورت درخواست کاربر به PDF، EPUB یا AZW3 تبدیل می شود) 
حجم فایل: 70 Mb 

قیمت کتاب (تومان) : 49,000



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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب دایره المعارف علوم گوشت

دایره المعارف علوم گوشت، ویرایش سوم، مجموعه سه جلدی به روزترین اثر مرجع در موضوعات محوری برای محققان کشاورزی و علوم غذایی در تمام سطوح است. این کتاب با بیش از 250 مقاله برجسته توسط کارشناسان برجسته جهان، پوشش بی‌نظیری از علم و فناوری تولید و برداشت حیوانات برای گوشت، همراه با تاکتیک‌هایی برای نگهداری و فرآوری ارائه می‌دهد. به وضوح به 12 بخش مجزا تقسیم شده است، موضوعات تحت پوشش شامل تمام جنبه های تولید حیوانات، طیور، ماهی و سایر گونه هایی است که معمولاً \"پرورش\" و/یا \"برداشت شده\" و همچنین علم نگهداری و فرآوری گوشت و ... مسائل مصرف کننده فصل‌هایی که در این ویرایش سوم جدید هستند، پیشرفت‌های علمی اصلی سال‌های اخیر، از جمله ویرایش ژنی حیوانات، پایداری و بیماری‌های مشترک بین انسان و دام را پوشش می‌دهند. علاوه بر این، کتاب یک رویکرد فصلی الگو را معرفی می‌کند، بنابراین یکپارچگی کل اثر را فراهم می‌کند و وضوح و دسترسی به محتوای آن را برای خواننده به حداکثر می‌رساند. فصل‌ها، بار دیگر، شامل انواع تصاویر، نمودارها، نمودارها و/یا نمودارها برای بهبود متن هستند.


توضیحاتی درمورد کتاب به خارجی

Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, Third Edition, Three Volume Set is the most up-to-date reference work on topics central to agricultural and food science researchers at all levels. With over 250 outstanding articles written by world leading experts, the book offers unparalleled coverage of the science and technology of producing and harvesting animals for meat, along with tactics for preservation and processing. Clearly divided into 12 distinct sections, topics covered include all aspects of the production of animals, poultry, fish and other species commonly \'farmed\' and/or \'harvested\', as well as the science of meat preservation and processing and consumer issues. New to this third edition are chapters covering the core scientific advancements of recent years, including gene editing of animals, sustainability and zoonotic diseases. In addition, the book introduces a templatized chapter approach, thus providing consistency to the entire work and maximizing the clarity and accessibility of its content for the reader. Chapters, once again, include a variety of images, charts, graphs, and/or diagrams to enhance the text.



فهرست مطالب

9780323851985v1_WEB
	Front Cover
	ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEAT SCIENCES III
	ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEAT SCIENCES III
	Copyright
	CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1
	CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 1
	EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
	SECTION EDITORS
	PREFACE
	Animal health risk analysis
		Introduction
		Transparency
		Uncertainty and variability
		Defining the scope
		Qualitative and quantitative methods
		International obligations
		Hazard identification
		Risk assessment
		Risk management
		Risk communication
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Exsanguination
		Introduction
		Further reading
		Relevant website
	Veterinary drug residue analysis
		Introduction
		Sample preparation
		Analytical methodologies
		Conclusion
		References
	Production systems. Poultry
		Chicken-meat production systems
		Free-range systems
		Intensive systems
		Natural ventilation
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Meat marketing | transport of meat and meat products
		Introduction
		Meat transportation temperature requirements
		Modes of meat transportation
		Water transport
		Air transport
		Rail transport
		Road transport
		Meat transportation technologies
		Types of refrigeration systems
		Summary
		References
	Microorganisms and resistance to antimicrobials. Ubiquity of | potential environmental and wildlife sources of microorganis ...
		Introduction
		Role of wildlife
		Environmental exposure to antimicrobial-resistant organisms
		Transmission of antimicrobial-resistant organisms from terrestrial animals
		Transmission of antimicrobial-resistant organisms from avian species
		Research needs
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Parasites present in meat and viscera of terrestrial farmed animals
		Introduction
		Ecological patterns of meat-borne parasite transmission
		Farmed animals as intermediate hosts
		Ruminants
		Swine
		Equids
		Poultry
		Rabbits
		Parasite detection at slaughter
		Drivers for transmission of meat-borne parasites
		Farming systems
		Eating habits
		Public health impact of zoonotic meat-borne parasites from farmed animals
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Preslaughter handling | behavior of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, bison, and deer during handling and transport to slaughter
		Introduction
		Behavior is important
		Behavioral indicators of stress
		Stress during slaughter
		Animal perception
		Behavioral methods for moving livestock
		Species differences in behavior between sheep and other livestock
		The need and impact of understanding animal behavior
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant websites
	Preslaughter handling | design of stockyards, lairages, corrals, races, chutes, and loading ramps for cattle, pigs, and sheep
		Introduction
		A case study of a beef plant
		Stun box and restrainer design for cattle, pigs, and sheep
		Layout principles for races, chutes, and crowd pens for cattle, pigs, and sheep
		Design of stockyards and lairages for cattle, pigs, and sheep
		Design of unloading ramps
		Conclusion/summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Pre-slaughter handling of animals and poultry
		Introduction
		Measures and methods of measuring pre-slaughter stress
		Preparation for transport
		Loading and unloading
		Transportation
		Lairage at the abattoir
		Movement from lairage to stunning pen
		Effects of pre-slaughter handling on meat quality
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Welfare including housing conditions
		Introduction
		Defining animal welfare
		The relevance of animal welfare for meat science
		Challenges to farm animal welfare
		The assessment and safeguarding of animal welfare
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Preslaughter handling | Welfare of animals
		Introduction
		The welfare continuum
		The animal rights movement
		Sentience
		Pain, fear and distress
		Animal welfare science
		Using animal behavior to understand animal welfare
		Approaches to understanding animal welfare
		Natural living approach
		Basic health and functioning
		The subjective experience of animal
		Practical assessment of animal welfare
		Animal based measures
		The five freedoms
		The five domains model
		One-welfare
		Animal welfare legislation and standards
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant website
	Quality management | abattoirs and processing plants
		Introduction
		Quality attributes of meat and meat products
		Quality strategies in the meat production chain
		Standardized quality management and certification
		Quality management in the meat production chain
		Prospect
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Slaughter without stunning
		Introduction
		Welfare concerns
		Monitoring unconsciousness and death
		Conclusions
		References
	Slaughter, Ethics, and the Law
		Introduction
		Applied Ethics and Decision-Making
		Stereotypes in Ethical Discussions on Animal Welfare and Slaughter
		Ethics of Stunning
		Further reading
	Meat animals, origin and domestication
		Introduction
		Origins of domesticated meat animals
		Changes in species under domestication
		Outlook/conclusion: the future of domestication of meat animals
		References
	Stunning: controlled atmosphere stunning
		Introduction
		Reason for use of gas stunning
		Gas mixtures evaluated for stunning/killing
		Mechanisms of induction of unconsciousness
		Time to onset of unconsciousness during exposure to gas mixtures
		Welfare concerns of gas stunning
		Low atmospheric pressure system (LAPS)
		Commercial implications
		Conclusions
		References
	Electrical stunning
		Introduction
		Brain activity
		Electrical stunning
		Practical application
		Meat quality
		Conclusions
		References
	Stunning | mechanical stunning
		Introduction
		Practical considerations
		Abattoir audits
		Summary
		Acknowledgments
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Risk assessment in animal welfare
		Introduction
		Conceptual framework in risk assessment in animal welfare
		Illustrative examples
		Conclusions
		References
	Animal welfare assessment at slaughter
		Introduction
		Selection of measures
		Prior to the arrival to the slaughterhouse
		Stunning
		Electrical stunning
		Gas stunning
		Penetrative captive bolt
		Percussive blow to the head
		Post-dead checks
		Conclusions
		References
	The National Bio & Agro-Defense Facility: Protecting the food supply & public health
		Introduction
		NBAF is a next-generation facility
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Carcass chilling and boning
		Introduction
		Carcass boning and hot boning
		Other options of hot boning
		Chilling
		Conclusion
		References
		Additional reading
		Relevant website
	Cutting and boning | traditional
		Introduction
		Terminology of cutting and boning
		Terms to describe wholesale cuts of meat
		Beef carcass cutting
		Forequarter cutting
		Forequarter boning
		Hindquarter cutting
		Hindquarter boning
		Pork carcass cutting
		General pork carcass cutting
		Pork shoulder cutting
		Pork leg (fresh ham) cutting
		Pork loin cutting
		Lamb carcass cutting
		Carcass primal breaking
		Lamb foresaddle component cutting
		Lamb hindsaddle component cutting
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	Cutting and Boning
		Introduction
		Opportunities and Challenges
		Pork Cutting and Boning
		Automatic Cutting of Pork Middles
		Beef Carcass Cutting and Boning
		Ovine Cutting and Boning
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Hot boning of meat
		Introduction
		Microbiology of hot boned meat
		Quality of hot boned meat
		Hot and warm boning operations
		Conclusions
		References
	Refrigeration and freezing technology: applications
		Introduction
		The chilling process
		Temperature profiles and the thermal center
		Chilling methods
		The freezing process
		Freezing methods
		Designing refrigeration applications
		References
		Relevant websites
	Refrigeration and freezing technology | equipment
		Introduction
		Basic mechanical refrigeration systems
		Primary chilling equipment
		Primary freezing equipment
		Secondary chilling and freezing systems
		Thawing and tempering equipment
		Retail display equipment
		Domestic storage equipment
		Hygienic design of refrigeration equipment
		Summary
		References
	Meat marketing | cold chain
		Introduction
		Elements of the cold chain
		Summary
		References
	Thawing
		Introduction
		Considerations
		Thawing/tempering systems
		Conduction methods
		Electrical methods
		Summary
		References
	Modeling meat refrigeration processes
		Introduction
		Model system boundaries
		Meat product chilling times
		Meat product freezing times
		Meat product chilling and freezing heat loads
		References
		Relevant websites
	By-products: Inedible
		Introduction
		Inedible by-products
		Processing
		The rendering process
		Industrial uses of animal by-products
		Animal by-product feed ingredients
		Major animal-derived fats
		Major animal-derived proteins
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant website
	By-products: Edible, for human consumption
		Introduction
		Products
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Hides and skins
		Introduction
		Trade in hides and leather
		Classification
		Hide composition
		Hide harvesting
		Hide curing
		Fleshing
		Trimming
		Sorting
		Quality of cure
		Tanning
		Soaking
		Dehairing
		Deliming
		Bating
		Pickling
		Tanning
		Wringing/setting
		Splitting and shaving
		Retanning
		Dyeing/coloring
		Fatliquoring
		Setting out
		Drying
		Conditioning
		Staking
		Buffing
		Finishing
		Planning
		Area measurement
		Physical properties of leather
		Tanning effluent and waste
		Summary
		Further reading
	Preservation methods of animal products
		Introduction
		Individual techniques utilized
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Equipment cleaning
		Introduction
		Plant and equipment cleaning
		Equipment surfaces and biofilms
		Surface energy
		Soil composition & removal
		Hygienic design of equipment and facility
		Cleaning compounds
		Sanitizers
		Consequences of ineffective cleaning and sanitization
		Summary
		References
	Biopreservation⋆
		Introduction
		Food culture
		Bacteriophages
		References
	Meat curing production procedures
		Introduction
		Regulations
		Basic ingredients needed for curing
		Formulating meat products
		Brine preparation
		Application of cures
		Specific cured products
		Natural, nitrate- and nitrite-free cured meats
		Conclusions
		References
	Smoking | traditional
		Introduction
		Wood smoke
		Deposition on smoked goods
		Diffusion and interactions in smoked meats
		The effect of smoking on the shelf life of meat products
		Health hazards induced by smoking of foods
		The equipment
		Conclusion
		References
	Curing | Brine curing of meat
		Introduction
		The chemistry of meat curing
		Cured meat color
		Cured meat flavor
		Curing ingredients and their role in cured meats
		Summary
		References
		Further readings
	Processing equipment tumblers and massagers
		Introduction
		Advantages of mechanical conditioning
		Disadvantages of mechanical conditioning
		Conclusions
		References
		Further reading
	Dry-cured ham
		Introduction
		Raw material
		Classification methods
		Salting
		Processes for quick-maturation products
		Commercial presentation
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Dry
		Introduction
		Proteolysis
		Lipolysis
		Microbial evolution
		Sensory characteristics
		Processing control
		Salt reduction
		Conclusion
		References
	Bacon production | belly bacon
		Introduction
		Belly bacon
		History of bacon
		Raw materials used for bacon production
		Curing methods
		Chilling after smoking
		Tempering
		Pressing/forming
		Slicing and packaging of bacon
		Microbiology, color, and flavor development
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Bacon production | Wiltshire curing
		Introduction
		Bacon processing techniques
		Wiltshire curing
		Wiltshire curing microbiota
		Conclusion
		References
	Meat marketing | Market requirements and specifications
		Introduction
		Reasons for specifications
		Conclusion
		References
	Patenting products, processes, and apparatuses
		Introduction
		Legal Requirements for Patentability of Inventions
		Patent – An Exclusive Right
		The Patenting Process
		Patent Strategy
		Patents as a Source of Information
		Patenting in the Meat Technology Field
		Examples of Patents
		How to Prepare a Patent Application
		The Patent Subsequent to Publication
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Ethnic meat products | biltong: a major South African ethnic meat product
		Introduction
		The traditional method of making biltong
		Preservation, storage, and shelf life of biltong as an intermediate moisture food
		Commercialization of biltong
		Conclusion
		References
		Websites
	Ethnic meat products—France
		Introduction
		Braised meat courses
		Charcuterie (delicatessen)
		Conclusion
		References
	Ethnic meat products/Indian subcontinent
		Introduction
		Ethnic meat products of India and Pakistan
		Ethnic meat products of Himalayan part of India, Bhutan, Nepal, and Tibet
		Ethnic meat products of Sri Lanka
		Ethnic meat products of Bangladesh
		Ethnic meat products of Thailand
		Ethnic meat products of Burma
		Ethnic meat products of Indonesia and Malaysia
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant websites
	Mediterranean
		Introduction
		Mediterranean meat products
		Conclusions
		References
	Ethnic meat products from Poland
		Introduction
		Polish meat products
		Legal protection of regional products in the European Union
		Sausages
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant website
	Swine breeds versus genetic lines
		Introduction
		Heterosis
		Composite breeding
		Maternal emphasis
		Paternal emphasis
		Heritage pork
		Extensive use of artificial insemination
		Summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Pig carcass composition and meat quality as delineated by breeding and genetics
		Introduction
		Genetic innovations focused on improving carcass composition and pork quality
		Fundamentals of carcass composition
		Fundamentals of meat and fat quality
		Genetic effects on carcass and pork quality
		Pork nutritional value
		Summary
		References
	Management systems (confined vs. extensive free-range) and Farm Level Pork Quality
		Introduction
		Production systems defined
		Carcass attributes
		Pork quality and eating quality
		Conclusion
		References
	Immunocastration, physical castration, and meat quality of male pigs
		Introduction
		What is boar taint?
		Physical castration
		Immunocastration
		Effects of castration on boar taint compounds
		Growth performance
		Carcass quality
		Fat quality
		Objective pork quality
		Pork eating quality
		Conclusion
		References
	Antibiotic usage and stewardship in the pork industry
		Introduction
		Conclusion
		References
	Feral pigs
		Introduction
		Biology and ecology
		Impacts caused by wild boar and feral pigs
		Management of wild boar and feral pigs
		Biosecurity and disease transmission risks
		Harvesting, processing and quality characteristics of wild boar
		Outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	African swine fever
		Introduction
		Aetiology
		Epidemiology
		Clinical signs
		Post-mortem lesions
		Differential diagnosis
		Disinfection
		Public Health
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Biosecurity and infectious disease control in pig production
		Introduction—infectious and non-infectious diseases
		Biosecurity
		Biomanagement of infectious disease
		Infectious disease elimination
		The Danish SPF system
		Conclusions
		References
	Quality management | Abattoirs and processing plants
		Introduction
		Quality attributes of meat and meat products
		Quality strategies in the meat production chain
		Standardized quality management and certification
		Quality management in the meat production chain
		Summary
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Electrical versus CO2 stunning of pigs: effects on animal welfare and meat quality
		Introduction
		Stunning methods
		Animal welfare
		Conclusion
		References
	Conversion of muscle to meat | Slaughter-line operation and pork quality
		Introduction
		Slaughter process factors affecting pork quality
		On-farm handling and loading
		Transportation
		Lairage at the abattoir
		Slaughtering
		Carcass processing
		Chilling
		Variations in slaughter line operation
		Conclusion
		References
	Pork nutritional value and relationships with human health
		Introduction
		Changes in pork nutritional value over time
		Influences of pork consumption on aspects of human health
		Conclusions
		Conflict of interest disclosure
		References
		Relevant websites
	US & world pork
		Introduction
		Demand vs. consumption
		Deeper pork consumption, demand, and knowledge insights
		Conclusion/summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Use of heterosis and breed differences in crossbreeding systems or composite populations to improve efficiency of beef prod ...
		Introduction
		Breeding cattle for beef production
		Heterosis
		Breed differences
		Matching genetic potential to the climatic environment
		Matching genetic potential to consumer preferences
		Biological types
		Crossbreeding systems
		Composites
		Summary
		References
	Production systems and nutrition
		Introduction
		Factors before birth
		Early nutrition and management
		Influence of the growing phase management
		Influence of the finishing phase diet
		Summary
		References
	Genetics and cattle breeding
		Introduction
		Principles of quantitative genetics and estimated breeding values
		Selection response
		Genomic selection
		Genetic parameter estimates
		Examples of successful selection
		Index-based selection
		Breed differences and crossbreeding
		Summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Ruminants
		Introduction
		Anatomical Distinction
		Feed Digestion in Ruminants
		Classes of Meat-Producing Ruminants
		General Aspects of Feeding Ruminants
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Cloning of cattle
		Introduction
		Methods of cloning
		Reasons for use of cloning
		Notable cattle clones
		Issues with cloning
		Regulations
		Application
		Summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Cattle handling stress and transportation
		Introduction
		Stress and beef quality
		Transportation
		Summary
		References
	Sustainability and greenhouse gas emissions from beef production
		Introduction
		Defining sustainability
		Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle production
		Historical improvements in greenhouse gas emissions
		Reducing emissions by improving productive efficiency
		Using growth technologies to improve productivity
		Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy-bred vs. beef-bred cattle
		Impacts of feed, forage and supplements on greenhouse gas emissions
		Current greenhouse gas challenges
		Effects of social acceptability on beef industry sustainability
		Unintended consequences of reducing greenhouse gas emissions
		Conclusion
		References
	Classification of carcasses | beef carcass classification and grading
		Introduction
		Beef carcass classification in Europe
		Beef carcass grading and classification in South Africa
		Beef carcass grading in the United States
		Beef carcass grading in Canada
		Beef carcass grading in Japan
		Beef carcass grading in Australia
		Conclusion
		Acknowledgment
		References
		Relevant websites
	Branded beef programs
		Introduction
		The beginning of branded beef
		But what is a brand?
		Brand specifications
		Who owns a brand?
		Brand effects
		Rise of credence attribute branding in beef
		Branded beef internationally
		Opportunities in branded beef
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Flavor development in beef, pork, lamb and goat meat
		Introduction
		Meat flavor origins
		Sources of meat flavor
		Intrinsic sources of meat flavor
		Extrinsic sources of meat flavor variation
		Conclusion
		References
	Breeds of sheep and goats
		Introduction
		Breeds of sheep
		Breeds of goats
		Conclusion
		Further reading
	Sheep and goats
		Introduction
		Stunning
		Bleeding
		Pelt removal
		Evisceration
		Head processing
		Performance of a mechanized system
		Chilling and freezing
		Sheep, lamb and goat carcass grading
		Conclusion and outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	Biomethane production
		Introduction
		Excreta as the potential to generate environmental methane and a source of energy
		Stages of anaerobic digestion
		Factors that affect the digestion process
		Physicochemical characteristics of biogas
		Feasibility to use biodigesters in developed and developing countries
		Conclusion
		References
9780323851985v2_WEB
	Front Cover
	ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEAT SCIENCES III
	ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEAT SCIENCES III
	Copyright
	CONTENTS OF VOLUME 2
	CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 2
	EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
	SECTION EDITORS
	PREFACE
	Salmon, trout and char
		Introduction
		Salmon supplies: species, fisheries and farming
		Trout supplies: species, fisheries and farming
		Nutritional attributes
		Packaging and marketing
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Shrimp farming yesterday to tomorrow
		Introduction
		History
		The industry today
		Production methodologies
		Production paradigms
		Intensification versus extensive culture
		Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS)
		Production methods
		Pathogens, obligate and opportunistic
		Nutrition
		Biosecurity challenges
		Genetic improvement
		Shrimp immunity
		Antibiotic use
		Post-harvest
		Conclusion: what is the future of shrimp farming?
		References
		Relevant websites
	Tilapia
		Introduction
		Species and strains of tilapia for culture
		Tilapia genetics
		Future of tilapia in a changing world
		Tilapia products and trade
		Conclusion
		References
	Crabs
		Introduction
		Crab fisheries
		Crab farming
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Cod and other white fish: Species and fisheries
		Introduction
		Cod
		Pollock
		Haddock (Melanogramus aeglefinus)
		Hake/whiting
		Cusk (Brosme brosme)
		Selected nutrition profiles
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		Reference
	Catfishes
		Introduction
		Channel catfish and its hybrid
		Pangasius
		Clarias species and hybrids
		South American catfishes
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	Tuna sustainability
		Introduction
		Tuna
		Composition and nutritional profile of meat from tunas
		Tuna fishing
		Tuna fisheries
		Value
		Species characteristics
		How are tuna fisheries managed?
		Harvest strategies & harvest control rules
		Tuna sustainability
		What is driving tuna unsustainability?
		The clock is ticking
		The market demand for sustainable tuna
		How can we meet future demand?
		Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) case-study
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		Relevant websites
	Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
		Introduction
		Production cycle of gilthead sea bream
		Production cycle of European sea bass
		Nutritional value of cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
		Summary and outlook
		References
	Carp meat
		Introduction
		Methods for analyzing nutritional composition
		Influence of rearing conditions
		Influence of feed ingredients
		Taking advantage of the plasticity of carp meat composition
		Conclusion
		References
	Oysters
		Introduction
		Fisheries, farming, oyster species
		General farming procedures: the basics
		Selected species
		Oyster products
		Shelf life
		Nutrition facts and health benefits
		Oysters and other proteins compared for sustainability
		Seafood production and the provision of ecosystem services
		Conclusions and remarks for the future
		References
		Further reading
	Seafood handling, processing, and packaging
		Introduction: seafood quality
		Seafood chilling and freezing
		Summary
		References
	The role of aquaculture in global seafood supplies
		Introduction
		History
		Production systems
		Cultured aquatic species
		Sustainability
		Constraints to expansion
		Summary
		References
	Standard methods for the bacteriological analysis of meat
		Introduction
		Choosing a method
		Sampling
		Principles of bacteriological analysis
		Indicator organisms
		Spoilage organisms
		Pathogenic microorganisms
		Future directions
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant websites
	DNA technology and meat microbiology testing
		DNA technology and meat testing
		Introduction
		PCR-based microbial detection
		DNA based bacterial subtyping not requiring DNA sequencing
		DNA sequencing based methods for microbial identification and subtyping
		Microbiome analysis of meats
		Next generation of DNA based technologies for meat and poultry microbiology
		Overview
		References
	Indicator organisms in meat
		Introduction
		Conclusions
		References
	Microbial contamination | microbial contamination of fresh meat
		Introduction
		Sources of microbial contaminants in fresh meat
		Detection of microbial contaminants
		Indicator tests for pathogen contamination in meat
		Microbiological criteria
		Processes to reduce microbial contamination on meat carcasses and cuts
		Summary
		References
		Further reading
	Microbial contamination | decontamination of processed meat
		Introduction
		Thermal technologies
		Infrared heating
		Nonthermal technologies
		Chemical antimicrobials
		Clean label alternatives
		Probiotic bacteria and bacteriocins
		Bacteriophage
		Plant extracts
		Active packaging
		High-pressure processing
		Validation
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Concepts and methods for mitigating risks related to meat-borne hazards
		Introduction
		Concepts of hazard mitigation
		Surveillance systems
		Interventions for hazard reduction
		Economics of hazard mitigation
		Future directions
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Hurdle technology
		Introduction
		The hurdle metaphor
		Aspects of hurdle technology
		Hurdle technology and food quality
		Application of hurdle technology in the meat industry
		Design of effective hurdle technology for meats
		Conclusion
		References
	Modeling in meat science: Microbiology
		Introduction
		The need for control of microbial activity in meat and meat products
		Preventive measures and intervention strategies
		Understanding of microbial dynamics in muscle foods
		Limitations and challenges
		European Union food safety legislation on Listeria monocytogenes and predictive microbiology
		Databases and user-friendly predictive software packages
		Conclusion
		References
	Factors affecting microbial spoilage
		Introduction
		Aerobic spoilage of raw muscle tissue
		Aerobic spoilage of fat and organ tissues and minced meats
		Spoilage of raw meat under anaerobic conditions
		Spoilage in modified and controlled-atmosphere packaging
		Bacterial spoilage of preserved meats
		Spoilage by yeast and molds
		Conclusion and outlook
		References
	Foodborne zoonosis
		Introduction
		Emerging foodborne pathogens
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Microbiological safety of meat | Bacillus cereus
		Introduction
		Characteristics of Bacillus cereus
		Isolation and identification
		Characteristics of foodborne/meatborne disease
		Mechanism of pathogenicity
		Epidemiology
		Control and preventive measures
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant website
	Microbiological safety of meat | Clostridium botulinum and botulism
		Introduction
		Botulism
		History of botulism and association with meat
		Isolation and characterization of C. botulinum
		Botulinum neurotoxin
		Incidence of C. botulinum in meats
		Botulism incidents involving meat products
		Control of C. botulinum in meats
		Refrigeration
		Thermal processing
		Redox potential and atmosphere
		pH
		Water activity
		Preservatives
		Hurdle technology
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant website
	Clostridium perfringens
		Introduction
		Characteristics of C. perfringens
		Isolation and identification
		Conventional methods
		Molecular methods
		Detection of C. perfringens enterotoxin
		Characteristics of C. perfringens foodborne disease
		Mechanism of pathogenicity of type F gastroenteritis
		Epidemiology
		Characteristics of outbreaks
		Incidence of the disease
		Animal diseases
		Control and preventive measures
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Microbiological safety of meat | Listeria monocytogenes
		Introduction
		General characteristics of Listeria
		Isolation and identification
		Listeriosis
		Mechanism of pathogenicity
		Epidemiology of meatborne listeriosis
		Control and preventive measures
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Salmonella
		Introduction
		Salmonella characteristics
		Detection, identification and quantitation
		Pathogenesis
		Salmonella in meat and meat environments
		Salmonella in the home
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant websites
	Microbiological safety of meat | Staphylococcus aureus
		Introduction
		Characteristics of the organism and its toxin
		Isolation and identification
		Characteristics of foodborne illness
		Control and preventative measures
		Conclusions
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Microbiological safety of meat | thermotolerant Campylobacter
		Introduction
		Physiological characteristics
		Stress tolerance
		Epidemiology
		Source attribution
		Control measures, intervention strategies, and best practices
		Regulations
		Detection methods
		Summary/outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	Yeasts and molds
		Introduction
		Morphological characteristics and classification of yeasts and molds
		Zygomycetes
		Ascomycetes
		Ecology and physiology of yeasts and molds in foods
		Enumeration of yeasts and molds in foods
		Identification of yeasts and molds
		Importance and occurrence of yeasts in meats
		Importance and occurrence of molds in meats
		Beneficial aspects of yeasts and molds in foods
		Prevention and control of fungal contaminants in foods and food processing environments
		Conclusion
		References
	Yersinia enterocolitica
		Introduction
		Characteristics of the organism
		Clinical presentation
		Mechanism of pathogenicity
		Detection of Y. enterocolitica in meat samples
		Epidemiology
		Control measures
		Acknowledgments
		References
	Potential environmental and wildlife sources of microorganisms in meat
		Introduction
		Role of wildlife
		Bushmeat
		High rates of transmission of antimicrobial-resistant organisms from avian species
		Strategies to reduce wildlife-livestock pathogen transmission
		Environmental exposure to antimicrobial-resistant organisms
		Research needs
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Oxidative and enzymatic factors affecting meat spoilage
		Introduction
		Oxidation of lipids
		Normal lipid oxidation
		Warmed over flavor (WOF)
		Oxidation of pigments
		Oxidation of proteins
		Enzymatic factors
		Conclusion
		References
	Emulsions and batters: Theory and practice
		Introduction
		Meat proteins
		Meat emulsion matrix
		Emulsion/batter stability
		Application and other considerations
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgments
		References
	Additives: Functional
		Introduction
		Regulations
		Incorporation of functional ingredients into meat products
		Functional ingredients
		Conclusion
		Further reading
	Non-meat proteins
		Introduction
		Meat protein
		Properties of non-meat protein
		Non-meat protein types
		Microbial proteins
		Conclusion
		Acknowledgments
		References
	Chemistry and physics of comminuted products: Other ingredients
		Introduction
		Salt
		Sweeteners
		Nitrite or nitrate
		Reducing compounds
		Cure accelerators
		Sodium (or potassium) lactate
		Phosphates
		Water or ice
		Binders, emulsifiers, extenders, or fillers
		Breading
		Flavoring agents
		Nucleotides
		Spices
		Coloring
		Antioxidants
		Enzymes
		Preservatives
		Miscellaneous
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Curing | alternative methods for cured meat products in the United States
		Introduction
		Conventional curing
		Alternative curing—systems and labeling
		Alternative curing—manufacturing ingredients
		Alternative curing—manufacturing procedures
		“Alternative cured” meat product challenges
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Sausages, types of cooked
		Introduction
		List of sausages
		Cooked sausage production
		Cured sausage products
		Uncured cooked sausage products
		Reference
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Sausages, types of: Fresh
		Introduction
		Definitions
		Raw materials
		Casings
		Production and types of sausage
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant website
	Sausages, types of dry and semi-dry
		Introduction
		Definitions of dry and semi-dry fermented sausages
		Technology of dry and semi-dry sausages
		Processing changes
		Flavor development
		Color development
		Texture development
		Safety of dry and semi-dry fermented sausages
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Sausages, types of: Emulsion
		Introduction
		Comminution methods
		Emulsification procedures
		Rind emulsions
		Fat pre-emulsions
		Causes of emulsion failure
		Types of emulsified sausages
		Reference
		Further reading
	Co-extrusion technology and gels for comminuted meat products
		Introduction
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Sausage casings
		Introduction
		Animal casings
		Laminated casings
		Collagen casings
		Cellulose casings
		Fibrous casings
		Plastic casings
		Fabric casings
		Co-extrusion
		Conclusion
		References
	Minced meats
		Introduction
		Labeling of minced meat
		Meat suspension
		Advantages of mincing
		Disadvantages of mincing
		Summary
		References
	Role of sodium nitrite curing of meat in curing human disease
		Introduction
		The chemistry of meat curing
		Nitric oxide biochemistry and human physiology
		Nitrite in human physiology
		Dietary nitrite exposure in perspective
		Conclusion
		Disclosure
		References
	Spices and Flavorings
		Introduction
		Characteristics and Components of Spices and Flavoring Agents
		Applications of Spices
		Usage
		Labeling (United States)
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Biofilms and their relevance to the meat industry
		Introduction
		Microbial biofilm structure and composition
		Biofilm formation: stages and influencing factors
		Relevance of biofilms to meat industry
		Detecting and studying biofilms
		Biofilm control and elimination
		Conclusion
		References
	Fermentation
		Introduction
		The processing of fermented sausages
		Microorganisms involved and the use of starter cultures
		Sausage metabolism and pH
		Development of sensory quality
		Oxidative stability
		Microbial stability and safety
		Modeling the nature and dynamics of ripening
		Fermented sausages as “functional meat products”?
		Conclusion
		References
	Microbial contamination of processed meat
		Introduction
		Sources of microbial contaminants in meat products
		Some microbial contaminants of processed meat
		Intervention against microbial contaminants of processed meat
		Irradiation
		Food preservatives
		Lactobacilli, probiotic bacteria, and bacteriocins
		Microbial contamination intervention and processed meat quality
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Battering and breading equipment
		Introduction
		Common terms
		Coating materials
		The role of frying in coating systems
		Common line configurations
		Types of coating equipment
		Measures of coating line performance
		Key control points in the performance of a coating line
		Summary
		References
		Relevant websites of several equipment manufacturers
	Processing equipment | smoking and cooking equipment
		Introduction
		Cooking equipment
		Cooking processes
		Cooking and smoking processes
		Smoking equipment
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Irradiation of meat and meat products
		Introduction
		Ionizing and nonionizing radiation
		Irradiation for pasteurization
		Regulation of food irradiation
		Irradiation of muscle foods
		Four areas in which irradiation is most useful
		Effects of irradiation on biological organisms
		Impact on microbiological populations
		Approved uses of irradiation for meat and meat products
		Applications and acceptance of food irradiation
		Summary
		Acknowledgments
		References
		Relevant websites
	Liquid Smoke (Smoke Condensate) Application
		Introduction
		Methods for Smoke Condensate Production
		Chemical Composition of Liquid Smoke Preparations
		Smoke Condensate Application Methods
		Use of Smoke Condensates
		Properties of Smoke Condensates
		Health Aspects Relating to the Use of Smoke Condensates
		Further reading
		Relevant website
	Mechanically recovered meat
		Introduction
		Machines that remove meat from bone
		Names for mechanically recovered meat and pertaining legislation
		Uses for mechanically recovered meat and palatability
		Composition
		Detection of MSM
		Safety and shelf-life
		Conclusions
		References
	Ethnic meat markets: China
		Introduction
		Current meat markets in China
		Traditional Chinese meat products
		Product characteristics of TCMPs
		Classification of traditional Chinese meat products
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Brazil and South America
		Introduction
		Regional Products
		Sausages
		Miscellaneous
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Ethnic meat markets: Germany
		Introduction
		Raw cured products
		Fermented sausages
		Cooked sausages
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Ethnic meat markets - Japan and Korea
		Introduction
		Japanese meat-based cuisine in general
		Deep-fried Japanese meat-based dishes
		Grilled/pan-fried Japanese meat-based dishes
		Steamed Japanese meat-based dish
		Korean meat-based cuisine in general
		Grilled/pan-fried Korean meat-based dishes
		Steamed/soup type Korean meat-based dishes
		Raw Korean meat-based dish
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Middle East
		Introduction
		The Middle Eastern Meat Products
		Sausages
		Pastrami
		Other Meat Products
		Traditional Meat Dishes
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Ethnic meat products: North America
		Introduction
		Conclusion
		Reference
		Further reading
	Growth patterns
		Introduction
		Measuring Patterns of Growth
		Organ and Tissue Growth Patterns
		Patterns of Carcass Growth
		Patterns of Bone Growth
		Patterns of Muscle Growth
		Patterns of Fat Depot Deposition
		Gender Differences in Growth Patterns of Body Constituents
		Genetic Variation in Growth Patterns of Carcass Components
		Nutrition Effects on Growth Patterns
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Carcass composition, muscle structure, and contraction
		Introduction
		Meat Carcasses
		Carcass Muscle
		Muscle Connective Tissue
		Muscle Fiber Structure and Physiology
		Muscle Fiber Metabolism
		Muscle Contraction
		Carcass Fat
		Carcass Bone
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Endocrinology
		Introduction
		Embryonic and Fetal Growth
		Postnatal Growth
		Recently Identified Factors Controlling Growth
		Summary
		Further reading
	Physiology
		Introduction
		Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Growth
		Physiology of Adipose Tissue Growth
		Physiology of Bone Growth
		Conclusion
		Further reading
	Growth of meat animals/adipose tissue development
		Introduction
		Brown adipose tissue
		Beige adipose tissue
		White adipose tissue
		Anabolic lipid metabolism
		Catabolic lipid metabolism
		Conclusion
		References
	Connective tissue: structure, function, and influence on meat quality
		Introduction
		Distribution, composition, structure of muscle connective tissue
		“In vivo” function of connective tissue
		Connective tissue properties related to meat texture
		Method of measuring meat texture
		Biological factors, connective tissue, and meat tenderness
		Postmortem changes in connective tissue
		Changes in connective tissue with cooking
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Nutritional and metabolic modifiers of livestock growth and composition
		Introduction
		Feed additives
		Steroid hormones
		ß-adrenergic agonists in animal production
		Summary
		References
	ß-adrenergic agonists and muscle growth
		Introduction
		ß-adrenergic agonist structure
		ß-adrenergic agonists and cattle and swine production
		ß-adrenergic receptors
		Conclusions
		References
	Carcass composition, muscle structure, fiber contraction
		Introduction
		Meat carcasses
		Carcass muscle
		Muscle connective tissue
		Muscle fiber structure and physiology
		Muscle fiber metabolism
		Muscle contraction
		Carcass fat (adipose tissue)
		Carcass bone
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Chemical and physical characteristics of meat
		Introduction
		Major chemical components of meat tissues
		Conclusion
		References
	Laboratory synthesized meat
		Introduction
		Must-have textural and flavor attributes and nutrients
		Myoblast and adipocyte cell culture
		Can laboratory synthesized meat be labeled as “meat”?
		Conclusions
		References
	The contribution of agricultural methane from ruminants and plants to global warming (4588)
		Introduction
		The greenhouse effect
		Greenhouse gases—the subtle interaction of emission and degradation
		GHG production is significant worldwide and is growing
		Food production and GHGs
		The ruminant-CH4 cycle
		Are criticisms of animal production valid?
		Land use and water availability
		Conclusion
		References
	Animal genomics and biotechnologies to improve meat quality
		Introduction
		Animal genomics
		Animal biotechnology
		Cultured meat
		Regulations
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
		Further reading
	Meat species determination
		Introduction
		Protein-based methods
		Nucleic acid-based methods
		Spectroscopic methods
		Point-of-care (POC) testing devices
		Conclusion
		References
	Animal and meat traceability
		Introduction
		Historical perspectives
		The CattleTrace pilot project
		The economics of a traceability system
		A nationwide organization
		Conclusion
		References
	Meat production in organic farming
		Introduction
		Guidelines and regulations in organic production
		Pork production
		Organic goat and sheep production
		Organic beef production
		Organic broiler production
		Product quality
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	Electrical stimulation
		Introduction
		History
		Description
		Factors that influence effectiveness of stimulation
		Scientific basis for tenderization involving electrical stimulation
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgments
		References
	Genome technology and meat traits
		Introduction
		Selective improvement of livestock
		End-product value and safety
		Summary
		References
9780323851985v3_WEB
	Front Cover
	ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEAT SCIENCES III
	ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEAT SCIENCES III
	Copyright
	CONTENTS OF VOLUME 3
	CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 3
	EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
	SECTION EDITORS
	PREFACE
	Species of meat animals: (d) Poultry
		Introduction
		Chickens
		Turkeys
		Ducks
		Geese
		Ratite
		Game birds
		Conclusions/summary
		Further reading
	Nutrition of meat animals: Poultry
		Introduction
		Outlook
		References
		Websites
	Primary processing operations
		Introduction
		Pre-slaughter phase considerations for meat quality and safety
		Primary processing operations
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant website
	Poultry optimum post-harvest meat quality
		Introduction
		Health
		Appearance
		Skin color
		Meat color
		Bone color
		Measuring color
		Palatability
		Tenderness
		Flavor
		Grading
		Functionality
		Abnormalities
		White striping
		Wooden breast
		Spaghetti meat
		Quality effects of myopathies
		Efforts to reduce myopathies
		Conclusions
		References
	Poultry muscle pathology as it relates to meat quality
		Introduction
		Myopathies of primary concern affecting breast meat quality
		Types of muscle metabolism
		Post-hatch muscle growth
		Heterogeneity of satellite cells
		Morphological structure of the pectoralis major (breast) muscle: role of satellite cells
		Role of satellite cells and extracellular matrix in breast muscle structure associated with myopathies
		Production of fat by satellite cells
		Effect of selection for breast muscle yield: fast compared to slower growing poultry
		Conclusion
		References
	Poultry food safety and foodborne illness
		Introduction
		Poultry food safety—general concepts
		Poultry foodborne pathogens
		Preharvest food safety interventions in poultry production
		Postharvest food safety interventions in poultry production
		Conclusions and outlook
		References
	Poultry waste management-manure
		Introduction
		Types of poultry manure
		Poultry waste disposal risks
		Greenhouse gas emission from poultry manure
		Poultry manure management options
		Through direct usage on farms
		Through composting
		Through black soldier fly bioconversion mechanism
		Through biogas system
		Through enhancement, nutrient reduction, and recovery of poultry manure nutrients
		Chicken manure as biochar in waste-water toxin removal
		Meat by-products management and methane production
		Cultured meat
		World practices and policies guiding manure management
		Conclusion
		References
	Biotechnology approaches in poultry meat production
		Introduction
		Genomics
		Genetic engineering and cell culture usage for poultry meat production
		Conclusion
		References
	Exotic avian species
		Introduction
		Avian Species
		Pigeon
		Peafowl
		Guinea fowl
		Parrot
		Ostrich
		Emus
		Quail
		Duck
		Chakoor (Chukar)
		Pheasant
		Conclusion
		References
		Further readings
	Boar taint
		Introduction
		Boar taint: description and causes
		Synthesis and metabolism of androstenone and skatole
		Potential solutions to the boar taint problem
		References
		Relevant websites
	Measuring meat flavour
		Introduction
		Measurement of the volatilome
		Solid phase extraction methods
		Soft ionization gas phase techniques
		Real-time flavor release
		Fat and flavor
		Non-volatile flavor
		Conclusion
		References
	Chemical and physical characteristics of meat | palatability
		Introduction
		Fat or lipids: Effects on meat palatability
		Four theories of marbling or lipid contribution to meat tenderness
		Use of marbling or intramuscular fat to segment meat for expected palatability differences
		Marbling or intramuscular fat as an indirect measure of meat tenderness
		Muscle fiber or lean components contribution to meat palatability
		Connective tissue influences on meat palatability
		Chemical development and reactions of meat flavor
		Cooked meat flavor development
		Basic tastes in meat
		Species-specific flavor of meat
		Lipids and off-flavor development
		Measuring meat flavor
		Conclusions
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Aging
		Introduction
		Mechanism of aging
		When does aging start?
		Effects of temperature on aging
		Variability in tenderness and aging
		Physical factors influencing aging
		Biochemical factors influencing aging
		Other factors influencing aging
		Hot boning
		Electrical stimulation
		Aging in different species
		Factors that modify aging
		Injection of calcium and other agents
		Freezing and thawing
		Measurement of aging
		Packaging
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant websites
	Conversion of muscle to meat | rigor mortis, cold and rigor shortening
		Introduction
		Muscle structure and composition
		Muscle contraction and relaxation
		Rigor mortis
		Influence of temperature
		Influence of glycolysis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
		Influence on tenderness
		Influence on water-holding capacity
		Conclusions
		References
		Further reading
	Cooking of meat
		Introduction
		Changes in meat during heating
		The heating process in meat
		Main cooking methods
		Ohmic heating
		Temperature control and heating time
		Resting period after cooking
		Effects of cooking methods on the eating quality of meat
		Effect of cooking on color
		Effect of cooking on aroma and flavor
		Effect of cooking on texture
		Effect of cooking method on cooking loss
		Conclusion
		Acknowledgment
		References
	Flavor development
		Introduction
		The precursors of meat flavor
		Makeup of meat flavor: Taste and odor
		Heat-induced meat flavor derived from
		Desirable meaty aromas of cooked meat
		Flavor of nitrite-cured meat
		Conclusions
		References
	Heat processing methods
		Introduction
		Thermal inactivation
		Sterilization
		Cooking (pasteurization)
		Methods
		Summary
		References
	Cooking of meat | Maillard reaction and browning
		Introduction
		The Maillard reaction
		Meat flavor compounds from Maillard reaction
		Meat flavor compounds from lipid−Maillard interactions
		Maillard browning
		Summary
		References
	Physics and chemistry of cooking meat
		Introduction
		Chemical changes of meat proteins
		Effects of heating on meat microstructure
		Water-holding capacity
		Texture and tenderness of heated meat
		Conclusion
		Supplementary material
		References
	Heat effects on meat: Warmed-over flavor
		Introduction
		WOF as a consequence of lipid oxidation
		WOF as a consequence of protein oxidation
		Sensory and chemical analysis in relation to WOF
		Preventive strategies
		Conclusion
		References
	Meat business and public policy
		Introduction
		Environmental stewardship and use of natural resources
		Animal welfare
		Antibiotics
		Dietary guidelines
		International trade
		Internal business regulation
		Alternative proteins
		Conclusions
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Meat pricing systems
		Introduction
		Price discovery
		Pricing efficiency
		Meat market channels
		Meat pricing systems in transition
		Public policy issues in meat pricing systems
		Meat pricing systems of the future
		Conclusion/summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Modeling the conversion of muscle to meat for predicting meat quality
		Introduction
		The modeling process
		Interactions underlying the development of meat quality after slaughter
		Modeling the whole system
		Conclusion
		Acknowledgments
		References
	Muscle fiber types and meat quality
		Introduction
		Muscle fiber — general structure and composition
		Muscle fibers — characteristics
		Muscle fibers ― methods of identifying fiber types
		Muscle fiber types ― factors of variation
		Influence of fiber type on meat quality properties
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	On-line measurement of meat
		Introduction
		Performance of on-line methods
		Assessing prediction performance
		Optical systems
		Ultrasound
		Near Infra-Red spectroscopy (NIR)
		Total Body Electromagnetic Conductivity (TOBEC)
		Radioactive isotopes
		X-ray systems
		Computed Tomography (CT)
		Summary
		References
	Sensory and meat quality optimization
		Introduction
		Visual impact at point of sale
		Production
		Processing
		Evaluation of meat quality sensory properties
		Cooking
		Guaranteed tenderness
		Conclusions
		Acknowledgments
		References
	Sensory assessment of meat
		Introduction
		Factors to be considered before performing a sensory analysis of meat
		Sensory assessment of pork, beef and lamb
		Sensory assessment of flavor of lamb and beef
		Sensory assessment of meat products
		Influence of demographics and new methods for analyzing sensory data
		Conclusion
		Acknowledgment
		References
	Tenderizing mechanisms | mechanical
		Introduction
		Carcass methods
		Packaging techniques and methods to prevent shortening
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Enzymatic
		Introduction
		Enzymatic tenderization
		Cathepsins
		Calpain system
		Caspase enzyme system
		Exogenous enzymes
		Conclusions
		References
		Relevant website
	Tenderizing mechanisms | chemical
		Introduction
		Rigor bonding
		Injection of metal ions and ionic strength
		Injection of acids and other compounds
		Vascular infusion
		Nonenzymatic tenderization mediated by calcium ions
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Molecular factors influencing meat tenderness
		Introduction
		Glycolysis and energy metabolism
		Release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum
		Proteolysis and proteases
		Apoptosis and heat shock proteins
		Involvements of protein oxidation and S-nitrosylation
		Conclusion
		References
		Further reading
	Tenderness measurement
		Introduction
		Descriptive terms and scales
		Intrinsic determinants of meat tenderness
		Measurement of tenderness of cooked versus uncooked meat
		Mechanical methods of tenderness measurement
		Sensory methods of tenderness measurement
		Other methods of tenderness measurement or prediction
		Conclusions
		References
		Further reading
	Thermophysical properties of meat
		Introduction
		Density
		Ice fraction and initial freezing temperature
		Glass transition
		Enthalpy, latent heat, and specific heat capacity
		Thermal conductivity
		Thermal diffusivity
		Moisture diffusivity
		Conclusion
		References
		Relevant websites
	Retail packaging and quality of meat and fish
		Introduction
		Vacuum packaging
		Vacuum skin packaging
		Modified atmosphere packaging
		Overwrap packaging
		Active packaging
		Effects of meat intrinsic properties
		Effects of supply chain factors
		Conclusions
		References
	Standard Methods
		Use of Standard Methods
		Standard Developing Organizations
		How a Method Becomes a Standard
		Performance Characteristics Examined
		Determination of Performance Characteristics
		The Codex Alimentarius’ Guidelines for Numeric Values for Method Performance Criteria
		How Methods Come into Being
		Chemical Standards and Official Methods on Meat and Meat Products
		Collaboration
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Chemical analysis sampling and statistical requirements
		Introduction
		Survey sampling
		Present data statistically and professionally
		Acceptance sampling
		Summary and conclusions
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant website
	Raw material composition analysis
		Introduction
		Composition of meat as a raw material
		Performance criteria for analytical methods
		Methods for fat analysis
		Methods for protein analysis
		Methods for moisture analysis
		Summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Chemical analysis | analysis of final product composition for labeling
		Introduction
		Current labeling requirements
		Nutritional databases
		Chemical analysis
		Test procedures
		Calculations
		Summary
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Chemical analysis for specific components: Major meat components
		Introduction
		Protein
		Amino acids
		Conclusion
		References
	Chemical analysis for specific components—micronutrients and other minor meat components
		Introduction
		Fat-soluble vitamins
		Water-soluble vitamins
		Minerals
		Cholesterol
		Enzymes
		Conclusions
		References
	Chemical and physical characteristics of meat | color and pigment
		Introduction
		Myoglobin
		Myoglobin concentration
		Amino acid sequence of myoglobin
		Pigments in fresh meats
		Cytochrome c
		Sulfmyoglobin
		Acid ferrimyoglobin peroxide
		Ferrimyoglobin peroxide
		Ferrocholemyoglobin
		Lipid oxidation-induced myoglobin oxidation
		Role of mitochondria in meat color
		Role of metabolites in meat color
		Pigments in cooked meats
		Premature browning
		Pink color defect
		Pigments in cured meats
		Conclusion
		References
	Chemical and physical characteristics of meat—water-holding capacity
		Introduction
		Principle
		Contractile proteins—actin and myosin
		pH
		Rigor
		Postmortem glycolysis rate
		Temperature and Genetics
		Aging
		Salt (NaCl)
		Phosphates
		Ionic strength
		High-pressure processing (HPP)
		Enhancement and ammonium hydroxide
		Sarcoplasmic proteins
		Cooking and heating
		Summary and outlook
		References
	Chemical and physical characteristics of meat | protein functionality
		Introduction
		Water binding
		Solubility
		Gelation
		Emulsification
		Conclusions and outlook
		References
	Color and texture deviations
		Introduction
		Effects of rigor mortis and aging conditions on texture and color
		PSE meat
		Pork
		Other species
		DFD meat
		Cold shortening
		Double muscling
		Callipyge sheep
		Muscle degeneration
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
	Temperature Measurement
		Types of Thermometers
		Temperature Logging
		Calibration and Use of Thermometers
		Further reading
	Other Physical Measurements
		Measurement of Humidity and Water Activity
		Measurement of Product Moisture Content
		Measurement of Air Velocity
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Physicochemical analysis methods
		Introduction
		Classical Methods
		Electrochemical Methods
		Electronic Sensing; ‘Noses’ and ‘Tongues’
		Flow Injection Analysis
		Mass Spectrometric Techniques
		Miscellaneous Techniques
		Quality Assurance
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Glycolysis
		Introduction
		Anabolism versus catabolism
		Catabolism postmortem
		Time course of glycolysis
		Structural changes postmortem
		Consequences for water retention and tenderness
		Consequences for shelf life and flavor
		Abnormal postmortem changes
		Conditioning and aging
		Conclusion
		References
	pH measurement
		Introduction
		What is pH?
		pH changes from muscle to meat
		Buffering capacity
		Importance of pH changes and ultimate pH in meat
		Time of pH measurement
		Measurement of pH in meat
		Conclusions
		References
		Further readings
	Measurements of water-holding capacity and color: Objective and subjective
		Introduction
		Water-holding capacity (WHC) measurement
		Color measurement
		Indirect methods to predict color and WHC measurements
		Summary and outlook
		References
	Predicting meat attributes from intact muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy
		Introduction
		NIRS
		Meat micro-structure and NIRS
		Summary
		Conclusion
		Outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	Applications of metabolomics in meat research
		Introduction
		Role of metabolites in beef color
		Application of metabolomics in meat science
		Application of bioinformatics for metabolomics data interpretation
		Conclusions
		References
	Applications of proteomics in meat research
		Introduction
		Proteomics to assess the quality of meat and processed meat products
		Proteomics strategies used in meat research
		Proteomics to study meat quality and discovery of biomarkers
		Proteomics to study meat quality defects
		Proteomics to study the effect of processing on meat and prepared meat products
		Proteomics for meat authentication and fraud detection
		Conclusions
		References
	Bioinformatics: In-depth analyses of omics data in the field of muscle biology and meat biochemistry
		Introduction
		What is bioinformatics?
		Computational workflow of omics data analyses from experimental data to interpretation
		Resources, databases, and main tools in bioinformatics
		Conclusions
		References
	Risk analysis and quantitative risk management
		Introduction
		Purpose and role
		Hazards and risks
		Risk assessment
		Risk assessment of chemical hazards
		Microbiological risk assessment
		Physical risk assessment
		Risk management
		Risk management options assessment
		Monitoring and reviewing implemented risk management
		Quantitative risk management
		Risk communication
		Conclusion
		Further reading
	Laboratory accreditation
		Introduction
		Accreditation and notification system
		Laboratory requirements
		Prospects
		References
	Foreign bodies
		Introduction
		Legislation and customer demands
		Definition and implication of FB in meat
		How to assess the risk of FB in a production
		Technologies for detection of FB in meat
		Test and documentation
		Emerging technologies
		Outlook
		References
		Relevant websites
	Residues associated with meat production and processing
		Introduction
		Biogenic amines
		Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
		Nitrate and nitrite
		Nitrosamines
		Heterocyclic amines
		Residues from wrapping and packaging materials
		Veterinary drug residues
		Oxidation of lipid and protein-derived compounds
		Residues from cleaning agents and disinfectants
		Environmental chemical contaminants
		Conclusion
		References
	Potential chemical hazards associated with meat
		Introduction
		Veterinary drugs and growth promoters
		Environmental contaminants
		Pesticides
		Mycotoxins
		Dioxins
		Food additives
		Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs)
		Migration of chemicals from packaging materials
		Conclusion
		References
	Overwrapping
		Introduction
		Meat pigment chemistry
		Requirements for overwrapped packages
		Microbial effects
		Management practices and systems to enhance overwrapping
		Conclusions
		References
	Packaging: Technology and films
		Introduction
		Functions of the package
		Film chemistry
		Multilayer films
		Anaerobic packaging with blooming agents
		Quality assurance in film production and in packaging
		Active packaging and smart packaging technology
		Sustainability in packaging
		Conclusions
		References
	Packaging | Vacuum
		Introduction
		Measurement of vacuum
		Myoglobin chemistry
		Essential film and package traits
		Vacuum packaging operations
		References
		Relevant websites
	Packaging—modified and controlled atmosphere
		Introduction
		Purposes of modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere packaging
		Role of gases in packaging
		Gas effects on bone marrow
		Gas effects on cooked color
		Film composition and gas permeability
		Enhancement of meat
		Active packaging
		Key factors for success in product quality using modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere packaging
		Summary
		References
	Water buffalo
		Introduction
		Biological classification and breeds
		Distribution of water buffaloes
		Genetic characteristics and morphology
		Growth traits and production potential
		Nutrition and health management
		Slaughtering, dressing, and by-products utilization
		Buffalo meat
		Processing and value addition
		Summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Macronutrients in Meat
		Introduction
		Macronutrient Content of Meat
		Meat Consumption and Macronutrients in Meat from Various Countries
		Meat Proteins
		Meat Lipids
		Fatty Acid Composition of Meat
		Macronutrients and Oxidation
		Summary
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Micronutrients
		Introduction
		Most relevant minerals and vitamins in meat
		Conclusion/outlook
		References
	Nutraceuticals
		Introduction
		Government Regulations
		Examples of Animal-Derived Nutraceuticals
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Nutritional role of meat for children and adolescents
		Introduction
		Changes in eating behavior during childhood and adolescence
		Meat, a food with high nutritional density for children and adolescents
		Main risks of insufficient meat intake in children and adolescents
		Risks of excessive meat-product intake in children and adolescents
		Conclusion
		References
	The contribution of meat in the diet of senior citizens
		Interest of meat proteins in covering body requirements
		Interest of meat in a preventive nutrition for healthy aging
		Too much is enemy of health benefit
		References
	Cancer health concerns
		Introduction
		Diet and cancer
		Cancer sites
		Summary
		References
		Relevant websites
	Cardiovascular and obesity health concerns
		Introduction
		Cardiovascular Disease
		Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
		Diet Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
		Red Meat and Cardiovascular Disease
		The Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Study
		The Role of Lean Beef in a Healthy Diet
		Understanding Meat Labeling
		Can the Composition of Meat be Modified?
		Obesity and Weight-Reducing Diets
		Conclusion
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Meat and digestive cancers
		Introduction
		Study of the relationship between consumption and cancer risk: nutritional epidemiology
		Meat and digestive cancer biomarkers
		Preclinical studies
		Mechanisms involved in the associations with the highest levels of evidence
		Conclusion
		References
	Microbiological issues affecting nutrition/safety of meat
		Introduction
		Bacterial pathogenic issues
		Microbial spoilage issues
		Bacterial biogenic amine production
		Bacterial antimicrobial resistance and genetic transfer in meat
		Beneficial bacteria for safety and nutrition
		Conclusion
		References
	Analysis of final product composition for labeling
		Introduction
		Current Labeling Requirements
		Nutritional Databases
		Chemical Analysis
		Calculations
		Further reading
	Potential chemical hazards linked to meat processing
		Introduction
		Main process-induced toxicants found in meat products
		Mitigation strategies to reduce the load of process-induced toxicants in meat products
		Conclusion
		References
	Vegetarianism
		Introduction
		Definitions of and Motivations for Vegetarianism
		Attitudes toward Meat
		Values and Vegetarianism
		Perceptions of Vegetarians
		Vegetarianism and Health
		Gender and Vegetarianism
		Summary
		Further reading
		Relevant websites
	Nutritional value, safety and healthfulness of meat from animals fed only organically-produced feedstuffs
		Introduction
		Nutritional value of organic meat
		Safety aspects of organic meat
		Is organic meat healthier than conventional meat?
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
		Further reading
	Dioxins and other environmental contaminants in meat products, including fish and sea food
		Introduction
		Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
		Conclusion/summary/outlook
		References
		Further reading
		Relevant websites and media
	Meat import and export for different countries
		Introduction
		Export restrictions on animal products
		US red meat and poultry imports
		Factors influencing the future of exports
		Conclusion
		References
	Contribution of bioactive compounds from meat
		Introduction
		Endogenous peptides in meat
		Bioactive peptides released during digestion
		Conclusions
		References
	“Red” and “white” meats—terms that lead to confusion
		Origin of “red” and “white” meat terms
		Meat terminology that leads to confusion
		“Red” meat vs. “white” meat—health controversies
		“Red” meat (beef) consumption and diabetes
		Role of lipids in meat and cardiovascular disease
		Compositional variation in meats often categorized as “red” or “white”
		Using correct meat terminology
		References
		Further reading
	What is meat? Perspectives of the American Meat Science Association
		References
	INDEX
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	AUTHOR INDEX
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